The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized the new Tier 3 vehicle emission standards, which will implement more strict guidelines for passenger cars, light-duty trucks, medium-duty passenger vehicles and certain heavy-duty vehicles.
Full implementation of the Tier 3 standards, which are aimed at reducing both tailpipe and evaporative emissions from motor vehicles, will cost automakers about $72 per vehicle in 2025, according to the EPA's estimates.
The tailpipe standards include different phase-in schedules that vary by vehicle class, but they generally phase in between model years 2017 and 2025. In addition to the gradual phase-in schedules, other flexibilities include credits for early compliance and the ability to offset some higher-emitting vehicles with extra-clean models, according to the EPA.
The EPA notes that, compared to current Tier 2 standards, the non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) tailpipe standards for light-duty vehicles represent an 80% reduction from today's fleet average and a 70% reduction in per-vehicle particulate matter (PM) standards. The heavy-duty tailpipe standards represent about a 60% reduction in both NMOG+NOX and per-vehicle PM standards.
The complete final rule can be accessed here.